Since the early periods, the Ottoman Empire has been the center of attention of European travelers and artists. This interest increased in the end of the 18th century and in the 19th century due to the improvement in travel conditions, the passion for Hellenism and the acceleration of archaeological research. In the early period, the trips, which mainly focused on Istanbul, began to spread slowly to the Aegean, Mediterranean and Southeastern regions as of the 18th century and increased in the 19th century. The place of travelers after Istanbul is the Aegean Region. The region’s cities and architecture are described by travelers in the travel book. These written representations are visually accompanied by engravings. While the travelers are telling the cities in their travels, the most frequently stopped groups are the defensive structures. In all Aegean cities, especially Izmir, the splendor of the castles that dominate the city is mentioned.

The castles are one of the building groups with intense attention in the narrative expressions and engravings of the Aegean Region. A panoramic view of the castle is available in almost any study. The city that attracts the most attention is İzmir. The three castles in the city come in different forms in engravings. Today, Kadifekale, which is in a very ruined condition, dominates the city in almost all panoramic images. Kadifekale is a place where travelers especially go and see and tell in their works. The antique buildings in the vicinity of the castle, which dominated the city, were also influential in this interest. This area, which the travelers describe as the acropolis of the city, is constantly flocking to visitors. Kale, which has a wide place in the book of travels, has been given in silhouette rather than entering the details in engravings. Kadifekale in the paintings of the artists who came to Izmir, with all its majesty, the gulf and the city was shown with a dominant understanding. The view of the castle today is close to this understanding. Kadifekale continues its existence in the form of squatters. There are some cisterns and a small chapel outside the fortification walls.

Two other fortresses which are emphasized about İzmir are Liman Castle and Sancak Castle. Sancak Kale, also known as Yeni Kale, is the first encountered building when it is approached from the bay to İzmir Bay. This very interesting structure can be seen with its rounded towers on a piece of soil protruding in the form of a tongue in the panorama of Bruyn in Izmir. The building, which is located within the scope of the Naval Forces Command in İzmir Inciraltı, has reached the present day.

Another fortress in İzmir, which is the subject of engravings, is the Liman Castle. It is only possible to find images of this structure which was destroyed between 1890 and 1891 and cannot be found in engravings.

In the Aegean Region, the castles were also emphasized in panoramic views of other cities except Izmir. He took part in the silhouette of Bruyn in Manisa.

Kütahya is another city in which the castle is given silhouette in engravings. In the work of Texier’s Kütahya, the structure is on a high hill and dominates the city. In these images, which are not entered into detail, the city fortresses for travelers are an indispensable element in urban descriptions. However, these studies do not concern the reflection of the formal and architectural characteristics of the fortress. In addition to some examples, it is possible to find the close and distinctive forms of the fortresses, which are generally considered as superficial and symbolic, in the engravings of Bodrum Castle. One of these is the Bodrum Harbor and Castle Envelope named Hilair, the Iskele Square, Bodrum Harbor and the castle were given during a moving day. In the engraving named Bodrum Castle of Texier, the castle is in an abandoned and stagnant atmosphere. Contrary to the present-day live view of Bodrum, the gravure is reflected in a very quiet way. In both studies, the general view of the castle is suitable for its present state. The difference between yesterday and today is the transformation of Bodrum into a very active and crowded tourism center.

In the engravings, it is seen that the exterior of the Bodrum Castle has been given interior spaces along with the remote images. In the color lithography named Mayer, the fortress was taken from the nearby plan and the crests on the walls were depicted in detail. Today, most of the crests are not available, the only exception is the British Tower. There are also examples of rigging in the entrance section of the fortress. Today, the ruins of the almost completely ruined Fethiye Castle are seen in the engraving of Purgstall. In the engravings which can be called symbolic, the walls of the castle are seen.

As mentioned earlier, the fortresses, which were particularly emphasized by Westerners, were shown in a vague and sometimes completely symbolic manner in general urban views despite such intense interest. İzmir’s Kadifekalesi, Sancakkalesi and Liman Castle, which were once one of the main structures of the harbor and which can not reach today, are among the interesting places. Likewise, we see the existence of these buildings, which were once the symbol of İzmir but could not reach to the present day, in engravings. In this respect, engravings are a document. Muğla-Bodrum Castle is another example that draws attention with its detailed depictions. The engravings of the building are evidence that reflects the coat of arms in the fortress, which was unearthed abroad, and that these belonged to these lands.

Keywords: Itinerary, Engraving, The Aegean Region, Orientalist Drawing, Castle Architecture


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