DESIGNING ILLUSTRATED POP UP BOOKS FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND A POP UP BOOK DESIGN
The children’s books, which lasted for a long time from past to present, have a very moving process. This process shows a positive development in the literature of the world and in the literature of our country. Scientific research for child development has increased and sensitivity has increased.
In our country, it can be said that children ‘s publications have become a separate specialty branch, children bookstores, children’ s libraries, children book fairs, publishers publishing children ‘s publications, and the increase in the number of children’ s books are the positive developments in terms of providing better books to children.
The pop-up books, which we refer moving books, have not developed much in our country, but have a rich history in the world literature. Moving books are prepared according to the principle of preparing three-dimensional on a two-dimensional background. Motion, depth, and the perspective are, the important elements in the design of the space. And also it is editing, composition, paper features, paper folding rules, printing and assembly techniques are just as important. The first moving book design example is seen in the 13th century when the world literature is examined. Moving boks are remembered in the history of children’s literature with names such as a pop-up book or a three-dimensional book.
When the development of pop-up books from past to present is examined; It has been observed that children develop their cognitive abilities in a positive way, enrich their creative imagination, create a love of books, and become one of the visual communication objects that will help them to communicate more easily with their environment. It is determined that the types of movable books we learned about the positive effects on perception were prepared in order to understand scientific complex subjects at first, but it is now used as a communication object which enables them to evaluate their entertainment and leisure time for mostly young children with the development of technology and the continuation of studies in the field of child education..
In the literature survey and also in field studies, it is observed that there are almost no studies in Turkey that can be used as examples of the types of moving books. Publishing houses are generally offered abroad by adapting the royalties and projects they buy from abroad. It is thought that good examples can be prepared in our country with the development of technical information like complex fiction structure and paper engineering. From this point of view, in the research; the basic design features of animated fairy tale books illustrations for pre-school are examined and a fairy tale book that can set an example is applied.
It is thought that animated fairy tale books will help children to develop easier communication with their environment by improving their cognitive abilities in a positive way, enriching creative imagination and creating a love of books. The main aim of the study is to prepare a sample fairy tale book by examining the illustration design features of animated books thought to be so important for child development.
The basis of human education is laid in the pre-school period. According to Yılmaz (2003), pre-school education is a systematic education process that helps children with in 0-72 months to guide all their development in accordance with the cultural values of the society, help them in the process of reasoning by increasing emotion development and perception power, develops creativity, and gains self-expression and self-control.
This study was limited to preschool children in the 36-72 month group. In the research, between the years 2011-2017, seven different animated tale books, which are copyrighted to preschool children, are published. Six of the identified movable fairy tale books (HMK1-HMK7) constitute foreign books which are purchased and published by Turkish publishers. The book was encoded as HMK7, prepared at every stage of Turkey and the Turkish hosts in their native cultural elements were included in the study as moving tale book.
The analysis of seven moving tale books, which are thought to be well designed or have design problems in terms of illustration and moving parts, are included in the study considering that they can add a significant dimension to the research.
In the study, a qualitative research method was chosen. A case study of qualitative research designs was used in accordance with the purpose of the study. Domestic and foreign printed three-dimensional story books, journals, articles, domestic and foreign thesis, papers, books and data were obtained by using the internet resources.The construction and design characteristics of animated storybook illustration with a rich history abroad are examined, which does not show much development in Turkey. As a result of this study, a three-dimensional and mobile tale book was prepared.
The sample of the three dimensional moving tale book prepared within the scope of the research has been sent to two faculty members who are expert in their field in order to evaluate the internal and external structure characteristics graphically through the “expert evaluation form. The reliability of the evaluation among the experts was calculated by taking into consideration the formula of) reliability = (consensus/ consensus + disagreement x 100 views) of Miles and Huberman (1994, p.64).
Illustration studies and three-dimensional application were prepared by the researcher himself and support was given for the writing of the determined tale. Interviews, observations and written documents from the data collection methods used in qualitative research were used during the study and comments were given in the light of the findings.
As a result of the study, it is seen that almost all of the movable and three-dimensional story books prepared for preschool children who are offered for sale in the market are foreign publications. Gönen et al. (2014) found that the prices of the books, which appealed to multiple senses and were put on sale with additional material such as toys / puppets, were found to be higher. This situation can be explained by the high cost of book production and the cost of the copyright of translation books. However, the fact that sufficient infrastructure and education, domestic, cheaper production can be done with a sample study is shown. Çakmak Güleç and Geçgel (2006) stated that, 12-15 cm books in a small group, 16-22 cm in the middle books, books longer than 22 cm can be grouped as large size. As a result of many investigations, it was understood that children had different tastes. Some children prefer small size books, while another child can choose a large book. According to Becker (1974) with, large-size books, the child’s reading of the book allows the child to follow the picture better. Considering the level of development and achievements of the age group, it is concluded that the content and the fiction are important together with the size of the book. Gönen et al. (2014) said that, picture books prepared for 0-3 year-old children should be prepared in accordance with the developmental needs of the child in terms of physical, illustrative and content characteristics. Koca, (2014) stated that, children should be presented to children by enabling them to create themselves freely (think, laugh, enjoy, fantasize, etc.). Books, language and visual characteristics of children as well as art and thinking education should support the process as interpreted.
Şimşek, (2016) said that, in the issue of pre-school publications, children should be selected from the immediate environment, mother, father, brother love, natural events, animals and extraordinary objects and events should be processed. The attention span of preschool children is short. For this reason, it is necessary to take this into consideration in the content of a good children’s book, to be told as little words as possible (Koca, 2014). For this reason, it is thought that children’s books, which are prepared in three dimensions, can transfer difficult and complicated subjects in a more effective and fun way. The captain (2006) states that the emphasis is on intensifying the movement in the design, and that the student’s interaction is constantly broken by the pauses and explosions. In three-dimensional books, the emphasis can be found both through illustrations and it is seen that this effect can be given by moving parts. It is thought that, as in the sample book prepared by the researcher, each page is designed with different fictions, and the interaction between the child and the book can be kept alive.
According to many researches, the story books prepared for children provide positive contributions to children in terms of providing concept and visual perception experiences, creativity and problem solving skills when necessary (Alpöge, 2003; Aslan, 2006; Baker, Scher and Mackle, 1997; Civaroğlu, 2000; Dağlıoğlu & Çakmak, 2009; ; Dilidüzgün, 2003; İpek-Yükselen and Bencik-Kangal, 2011; Kiefer, Hepler, Hickman and Hucks, 2007; Leech and Rowe, 2014; Özyar, 2012; Sever, 2015; Tanju, 2010; Turla, 2015).
The feasibility of the internal and external design features of the moving and 3D story book designed by the researcher was determined by the expert evaluation form which was developed by the researcher taking into account the specific criteria. In this context, two graphic design experts applied to the views of the field design, designed the interior features of the book, theme, subject, heroes, plan and style in terms of the external structure of the “book size, page layout, letters, illustrations and cover (paper, skin). The results of the evaluation conducted by the experts are presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Results of Expert Evaluation for Illustration of Moving Fairy Tale Book Prepared for Pre-School
|I. Expert||II. Expert|
|Heroes (Main characters)||X||X|
|External Structure||Book Size||X||X|
Abbreviations : (N.A: Not appropriate, L.A: a Little appropriate, A: Appropriate, C.A: Completely appropriate)
When Table 1 is examined, it is seen that the field experts generally evaluate the internal and external characteristics of the fairy tale book in the “appropriate and completely appropriate” Table range. The reliability coefficient for the evaluation by field experts was calculated separately for each category by taking into account the formula Miles reliability = (consensus / consensus + disagreement) X 100 X of Miles and Huberman (1994, p.64). For this reason, the reliability for the internal structure category was 80% and the reliability for the external structure category was calculated as 80%. Miles and Huberman (1994, p.64) emphasize that compliance should be at least 70% in the evaluation of experts. The results of the evaluation by the field experts show that three dimensional tale book graphically reflects the internal and external characteristics of the preschool children and gives reliable results in terms of design.
When the development of three-dimensional and moving books from past to present is examined. it has been observed that children develop their cognitive abilities in a positive way, enrich their creative imagination, create a love of books, and become one of the visual communication objects that will help them to communicate more easily with their environment.
In the literature researches, we have learned the positive effects of perception on the moving book types in the beginning, in order to understand the complex issues in the field of positive science for adults only, but with the rapid development of technology and the continuation of the studies in the field of preschool children, nowadays, children and young people can enjoy their leisure time. It is determined that it is used as a communication object that provides its evaluations.
The designs of the three-dimensional fairy tale books and the editing of the book must be appropriate to the child’s level of creativity and development, and the child should be able to love the book. In making the illustrations, the designer must establish an infrastructure suitable for the working discipline of movement and mechanism. In this context, movement diversity and different types of pop ups should be preferred. The differences in movement between the pages will keep the child’s interest in this way and will enable the child to interact more with the book.
With findings obtained from the research about the pre-school period; This period showed that the visual materials prepared for the children contribute positively to the creativity level of children. Pop up books are thought to inspire children by activating multiple senses. Moving, three-dimensional forms will be a creative material for the ‘pre-schoolers’ children to be familiar with books. The fact that books are a source of information as well as a sense of fun will support them to be more intertwined in later times.
Moving fairy tale books will contribute positively to both cognitive and physical development of pre-school children, and will be an ideal interactive material for education and training. Güzel and Kurtulan (2017) said, in their study that, children’s cognitive and social skills are closely related to children in early childhood according to age groups. This eclectic situation shows the diversity and content of the materials used in learning. It is thought that moving books will be an alternative material in this context.
Almost all the moving tale of copyright books available on the market in Turkey printed in China. It has been seen that publication rights have been translated again into Turkish. In most of them, there is no expression of the age group of the book. To Ciftci (2013), direct access to the educational purpose of children’s books is directly related to the selection of books at the appropriate age level. For this reason, presenting age group proposal in preschool story books will support concept development (Balat, Kılıç, 2017).
It is thought that all visual written materials prepared for pre-school children (36-72 months) will be designed on the basis of their developmental characteristics and gains by taking the Preschool Education Program prepared by the Ministry of National Education (MEB).
The followings are the suggestions that can be applied when the results of the research that examines the design problems of the pre-school stories and the situations in the editing stage are examined:
In line with the foreign moving fairy tale books printed abroad, it is recommended to support the designers to prepare native moving fairy tale books that contain Turkish cultural elements when certain conditions are met in our country.
In the literature survey and also in field studies, it is observed that there are almost no studies in Turkey that can be used as examples of the types of moving books. Publishing houses are generally offered abroad by adapting the royalties and projects they buy from abroad. It is suggested that good examples can be prepared in our country with the development of technical information such as complex fiction structure and paper engineering.
It is possible to open departments in the field of illustration and children’s book illustrations in certain academic units which can meet the requirements by Higher Education Council (YÖK); It is suggested that qualified and specialized designers can be trained for children’s broadcasting. It is also thought that paper engineering and assembly information required for the moving book type can be chosen as the subject matter in these sections.
It is suggested that all individuals who design, draw and publish a fairy tale book prepared for preschool children should be more sensitive and educated in preparing qualified children’s books.
Moving boks can be used by, preschool children (36-72 months) even if they can not read and write pages, the fun of the content is thought to leave even permanent effects. It can be seen that it can be more supportive for creativity, to actively involve the child in the story and to enable activities to support motor development. It is suggested that educators can use mobile books as interactive material.
Keywords: Pop up Book, Moving Book, Pre-school