AN EVALUTION OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE ARCHIVE RECORDS RELATED TO TWO ANCIENT CENTERS OF THE TURKS: BUKHARA AND SAMARKANT

STRUCTURED ABSTRACT

The examination of the Ottoman Archival documents reveals that the relations between Bukhara and Samarkand region and Anatolia are in a wide range of subjects and long-term. Launched during the first conquest of Anatolia by the Sufi and Dervishes connected to the Yesevi Dervish, the efforts to transform the geography that we are living in now into the Turkish-Islamic land, which is the biggest step of transforming the geography to the homeland, was carried out in the following centuries by the sheikhs and dervishes of the Naqshbandi tradition with the same passion.

As a result, opening various islamic monasteries and lodges, many sheikhs / dervishes from Bukhara and Samarkand served as a religious minister in many places of the Ottoman country. Among them, we can encounter the names of those who were descended from Ahmet Yesevi, as well as those of the descendants of Imam Rabbani in the documents.Apart from these religious-cultural contacts, it is also understood from the documents that the Ottoman Empire was in intense diplomatic contact with the Emirate of Bukhara. The most important reason for this is that the Safavid State and the Russian Tsarism, with which the Ottoman Empire was in war for a long time, also posed a threat to the Emirate of Bukhara.

For this reason, the Ottoman Empire attemptedf to form an alliance with the Emirate of Bukhara in the 16-17th century during the war with Safavid, and in 18-19th centuries during the Russian wars. Similarly, the Emirate of Bukhara, which was threatened by these states, frequently asked for help from the Ottoman Empire and even considered the Ottoman State as overlord. Because of these friendly relations, a privileged protocol was adopted in the acceptance of Bukhara ambassadors.In the Ottoman archives, we encounter numerous documents about the ones coming from the region with the aim of pilgrimage. Most of these documents are the ones asking for ensuring the convenience of the pilgrims or the reduction of travel fees imposed on them.

One of the points that attracts attention here is the desire of the pilgrims from Bukhara to see the Caliph after serving their pilgrimage.These documents show us that Bukhara and Samarkandis regarded Ottoman Empire lands as a safe haven for themselves. Especially after the invasions of the Russians, we see that many of these people took refuge in the Ottoman country. It is evident in the documents that the Ottoman administration made a serious effort to help them and gave orders to the governors in the provinces to treat them as if they were not refugees. This approach was also transferred to the Turkish Republic era and therefore Ministry of Education was allocated for 1500 TL for Bukharan students studying in Turkey in 1924.

Documents reveal that the relations between Turkey and Uzbekistan has always been friendly and long-lasting. In addition, these documents are very important in terms of showing that there are many studies on the region.

Keywords: Samarkand, Bukhara, Ottoman, Archival documents, Uzbek, Uzbekistan

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