Reading and comprehending skills are very important in social and academic achievements of individuals. After the necessary knowledge and skills are gained by the teachers, students are expected to comprehend and express a text they read. One of the methods of expression is the text summarization. Summarizing facilitates the comprehending of the text as well as the reading of the text. Besides, summarizing can be said to be related to many areas like reading. In the studies conducted, it is seen that teacher candidates and students are weak or moderate in terms of applying summarization strategies. Therefore, summarization is an area that needs attention. Various techniques can be used to effectively teach and improve the ability to summarize. Some of these techniques are graphic editors, animation, abstract frames, note taking, matrix, WINDOW. The WINDOW technique is organized by Asaro-Saddler, Muir-Knox and Meredith (2018). Whether it is effective in developing text comprehension and reading comprehension skills of individuals with special needs. It has been found that the technique has a positive effect on both skills.
The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of WINDOW technique to fourth grade students’ text summarization skills. The sub-purposes are:
- What is the contribution of WINDOW technique to the development of text summarization skills of fourth grade students?
- How does the WINDOW technique contribute to the level of remembering a text read by fourth grade students?
- What do students think about WINDOW technique?
- What happened during the application of WINDOW?
In this study, it is aimed to determine the contribution of WINDOW technique to text summarizing skills. The action research design was used. Two different study groups were formed. The first study group consisted of 24 students in the fourth grade of a primary school in Uşak city center and selected by easy-to-use sample selection technique. The second study group consisted of 10 students selected from the first study group by using stratified sampling technique considering the criterion of academic achievement. In order to reveal the students ‘views on WINDOW technique, a study group of 10 people was formed by considering the level of students’ summarizing skills.
Eight texts were used in the study. In determining the texts, expert opinion was received about the suitability of the text to of the fourth grade students in a primary school. The data for the first and second sub-purposes of the study were collected through the WINDOW technique paper. Student products were controlled by three classroom teachers through the scoring key. The data for the third sub-aims were collected through semi-structured interview form and interview voice recordings. The data for the fourth sub-purpose were obtained through the researcher diary held by the researcher / practitioner at all stages. In the interview form, the students’ willingness to write a summary, questions about the technique and questions about the desire to re-use the technique were included, and recordings were recorded with the students during 3-4 minutes.
The data collected for the first and second sub-purposes of the study were interpreted by the paired samples t test. The findings obtained from the interview and the researcher diary for the qualitative part of the research were presented with descriptive analysis technique.
According to the findings obtained from the study, WINDOW technique is an effective technique for gaining text summarizing skills. Findings obtained from the research are as follows:
- According to the results of the pre- and post-application scores of the fourth grade students, the difference between the students’ scores was statistically significant.
- According to the results of the fourth grade students ‘scores before and after the application (pre-test and without technical summary), the difference between the students’ scores was statistically significant.
- According to the results of the fourth grade students summarizing the same text and summarizing what they remembered without text, the difference between the students’ summary scores was statistically significant.
- It was seen that the students found summarizing with the window technique more fun and easier and they liked the technique. In addition, it was found that they considered that it was necessary to summarize in daily life and had a positive attitude towards summarizing.
- Findings from the research diary written by the researcher during the application show that the stages of the technique and the process are not coercive. In addition, it was observed that students’ participation in the course and learning awareness increased during the application.
Conclusion and Suggestions
There was a significant increase in comparison of the pre- and post-application summarization scores of the study. It has been observed that students use their summarizing strategies more effectively, such as making progress, deleting, generalizing, expressing, reflecting the main idea correctly. These findings indicate that WINDOW technique is effective in developing students’ summarizing skills.
In a study, it was concluded that story maps contribute to the summarizing skills of primary school third year students (Arslan, 2017). In a study conducted by Şahin (2012) in which the effect of story map technique was analyzed, it was concluded that the use of technique has an effect on summarizing and finding main ideas. These results support the conclusion that summarization instruction using WINDOW of technique is effective. When the summary texts of the students were examined, it was seen that the level of recall was high. This finding shows that WINDOW technique is effective on students’ success in recalling and summarizing. The findings obtained from the researcher diary during the application show that the stages of the technique and the process are not compelling. In addition, it was observed that students’ participation in the course and learning awareness increased during the application. This result supports other findings regarding the effectiveness of the technique.
The findings of the study show that WINDOW technique has a positive effect on text summarizing ability. According to the results of the study, it is seen that WINDOW technique is effective in the development of summarizing skill. Therefore, it is thought that it will be useful to use in Turkish lessons.
Keywords:Summarizing, Writing Strategies, WINDOW technique