It is an important aspect that pre-service teachers are able to examine, criticize and carry out independent research in their professional development. The general aim of the study is to evaluate the studies carried out in scientific research methods course and the literature review and report writing course and to create a general feedback on pre-service teachers’ education in scientific research. For this purpose, the research reports prepared by students who have taken the course of the literature review and report writing were examined in terms of topic selection, use of different and current sources and suitability of the bibliography to APA6. For the general purpose, the following sub-objectives are determined:
- What is the distribution of subject areas in research reports?
- Is the number of words in the headings appropriate according to APA?
- What is the number, type, and currency of the references in research reports?
- How is the appropriateness of the bibliography to report according to APA6?
The method of this research is descriptive model that examine the qualifications of reports in terms of literature review and reporting. In the first step, an analysis framework was established from the descriptive analysis steps. In the second step, it is determined which data will be arranged in the themes. In the third step, the data obtained from the research reports collected in order to reveal the qualifications of the students in the literature review and reporting activities in scientific research process were arranged according to these themes and were defined and interpreted in the last step.
In the 2017-2018 academic year, a total of 52 pre-service teachers are enrolled in the undergraduate program. The appropriate sampling method, which is one of non-random sampling methods, was used in the study group (Büyüköztürk, Akgün, Karadeniz & Demirel, 2010; Turan & Yılmaz, 2013; Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2011).
In the research, research reports which were prepared as an end-of-term homework of the students were examined. The courses include the selection of research subjects, knowledge of the rules of report preparation and application gains. In lessons; “selection of research topic, creation of research question”,“ literature review”, “literature review methods”, ”literature summarization and interpretation”, and “reporting of research according to Apa6” topics are taught. The research assignments included in the study were passed through the turnitin plagiarism program and over the 25% plagiarism rate was not accepted. While examining the research reports of the university students in scientific research process in terms of;
- selecting research topic
- number of words in the title
- number of references used
- variation of references’ type (books, articles, thesis, web page, etc.)
- the actuality of the references used (last 10 years, 11-20 years, 21 years and more years)
- appropriateness of bibliography to APA6
- The first letter is written in large (yes-no)
- The following row after the first row is written withrawn (yes-no)
- Alphabetical order (yes-no)
were included. The research reports of students were examined by taking the classification form according to the scopes determined by researchers. The reliability of the study was determined by using the percent of agreement index. In order to determine the interobserver compatibility of coding, the following formula, which was suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994), was used.
Reliability = Number of consensus / Total consensus + Number of appearances
According to this formula, the percentage of fit among researchers was found to be ,94. Due to the fact that observation between observers is higher than ,80, it was found appropriate to use the codes generated in the study (İftar & Tekin, 1997; Miles & Huberman, 1994).
15% of the reports examined within the scope of the study were sexual abuse, 19% psychological adjustment, 21% personal guidance, 6% vocational guidance, 21% educational guidance, 8% support services, 10% written on social media topics. It has been determined that students’ interests focus on personal guidance and educational guidance.
It was determined that headings of 96% of the reports were 12 words or less and 4% of them were more than 12 words. Students’ reports were found to be highly appropriate according to APA6 standards.
When the bibliography of research reports is examined, it is seen that the percentage of sources used in reports was identified as 19% between 1-5, 56% between 6-10, 17% between 11-15, %4 of 16-20 and %4 21-25. It was observed that more than half of the students benefited from the sources in the 6-10 range.
In research reports, the range of 16% book, 53% article, 12% thesis, 15% web letter, 4% other sources (brochure, lecture notes, etc.) were used. Because of number of references used in each research report was different, the total frequency was calculated to be 480. The students benefited from articles highly when creating their reports.
51% of the references were written in the last 10 years, 32% in 11-20 years, and 6% in 21 and more years ago. 11% of the references in the bibliography are not stated in the year. Since the ratio of references written in the last 10 years is the highest, it has been observed that the students are meticulous in reaching the current sources.
The first letter of references were capitalized in 89% of the references, the first row to the left side and the following line written withdrawn in %40 of references, and in %65 of the references alphabetical order was applied. Students do not comply mostly with the rule that the following line after the first row must be written withdrawn.
When the results of the research are evaluated in terms of general results, it can be said that it has good results to give examples after theoretical information in the courses, for students to write the related section every week about the research topics they have determined and submit a research report at the end of the semester. According to the findings of the research, it has provided the students to develop their skills based on performance, obtain permanent knowledge, apply what they have learned, develop the skills to gain an understanding of the sources in their fields.
Keywords:scientific research, literature review, reporting, teacher candidate