INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HANDICAP AND SPORT HABITS ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP
The right to live is a fundamental human right and being healthy is a prerequisite. Health is the state of absence of disease and disability as well as the presence of physical, mental and social well-being.(Durduran, 2009). As it is understood, health is a fundamental right and need for every individual, but some individuals may be disabled from birth or they may be disabled due to the different kinds of reasons (Durduran, 2009).
Obstacle; it is a disorder in physical, emotional, mental or any kind of disability that makes success difficult. Obstacle implies the impact of a deficiency, the individual and society to be expected to remain at a level of success that is lower than expected (Önül, 1989). The concept of disability doesn’t only concerns the individual. Because an individual with special needs in the social environment constantly encounters other obstacles. He meets such obstacles at school, streets and sports. Therefore, the reason why the obstacle is a social problem turns it into a problem of society (Özsoy et al., 1997). Disability is a social phenomenon in terms of its causes and consequences. Bodily differences have been decisive for social life for centuries. This determination is made by defining the bodies outside the social norm as “the other“. In history, disability is viewed from a purely medicinal term that neglects its social aspect (Yılmaz, 2004).
The aim of “United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities”adopted in 2006 is to promote, ensure and protect the full and equal enjoyment of fundamental freedoms and all human rights for all individuals with special needs and to increase respect for their dignity resulting from being human. It shows a major change in understanding of responses to disability worldwide (WHO, 2011).
In 1980, the World Health Organization developed the International Classification of Impairments, Disability, and Handicaps (ICIDH) by modifying Nagi’s model to have better documents about the health care processes. The terms of this model are as follows: Disorder is a deivation of the structure in psychological, physiological or anatomical froms with loss of function. It also expresses the disorder of organ level. The disorder may be permanent or temporary, physiological or psychological (Nagi, 1965). Disability is a state of inability or handicap due to age, gender, social and cultural factors, depending on the expected role of the person to restrict or can not be met (Tozlu et al., 2012).
The aim of the study is to investigate whether the sport habits of individuals with different disabilities have an effect on their entrepreneurship levels. This study aims to reveal the entrepreneurial potential of individuals with special needs. The research group of this study consisted of a total of 240 special participants in 2015. Participants from different cities of Turkey, in different sports clubs and associations engaged in physical, visual and audial needs as a total of 120, (60 female and 60 male volunteers) were conducted. A total of 120 volunteer participants (60 female and 60 male) not doing sports and having physical, visual and hearing needs were used as the control group. In the research, the descriptive correlational model was applied and the survey technique was used as data collection tool. The data were obtained by face to face interviews by the researchers. At first, a demographic questionnaire developed by the researcher consisting of the Gender, Age, Marital Status, Education Status, Monthly Income Status, Job Experience Status, desire to establish one’s own business, considering oneself as an entrepreneur was applied to the participants. In addition, the Kaufman FastTrac Entrepreneurship Character Questionnaire (Annex-1), which was developed by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, the largest foundation dedicated to entrepreneurship in the world, published in the world-famous Forbes magazine and used in many academic studies was applied. In this analysis, it is tried to measure the entrepreneur characteristics such as desire, desire levels, willingness to fight even in unknown situations, determination, persuasion ability, self-confidence, business knowledge and disciplines, ability to overcome problems and ability to communicate effectively and strategically in the environment. There are 3 alternative answers to each question in the Kauffman FastTrac study, which are rated 1, 2 and 3 points. The highest score of 17 questions is 51 (17 * 3points = 51). According to this, those receiving 40-51 points are Entrepreneurs, those who score between 30-39 are Potential Entrepreneurs and 29 and below are evaluated as Non-Entrepreneurs. Kauffman FastTrac Entrepreneurship Character Questionnaire, consisting of 17 questions, was applied.
In this study, which was conducted among 240 participants aged between 18-45 with physical, visual and hearing disabilities, all groups of handicaps were conducted as potential entrepreneurs on the rate of %93 including all potential entrepreneurial and entrepreneurial categories. Entrepreneurial level of the visually impaired individuals is higher than the groups of other handicaps. It is conducted that the more the income rises, the more the level of entrepreneurship rises and the willingness to start their own business becomes at stake.
When we look at the results of our study, it is determined that all the participants have the characteristics to be entrepreneur regardless of the kinds of their special needs. Although there are small differences depending on the type of special needs, it has been determined that the sporting habit and the economic situation are determinative in showing entrepreneurial behavior. Male and single participants were found to have higher entrepreneurial characteristics. It was concluded that education was a determinant factor in entrepreneurial behaviors and it was conducted that individuals with special needs avoided mostly undergraduate and graduate education. It has been concluded that individuals with special needs have less chance of higher education or don’t sympathize with that education and this poses an obstacle to revealing their existing entrepreneurial characteristics. It has been observed that individuals with special needs previously worked in a job and reaching a high monthly economic income show entrepreneurial behaviors. However, those with low economic income may also show entrepreneurial behaviors to get rid of this situation.
It is necessary to support entrepreneurial characteristics of individuals with special needs and to be efficient individuals within the society by moving away from the protected area in their environment. We think that individuals with special needs do not know how to become entrepreneurs, and therefore it is important to give entrepreneurship training to elicit positive results. We can state that individuals with special needs do not leave their protected environment and prefer a closed life in order to avoid losing their existing economic conditions. When individuals with special needs show entrepreneurial behaviors in order to change these behaviors, we think that economic supports shouldn’t be interrupted, instead more economic contributions should be provided to those who show such behaviors. In addition, according to the education level of individuals with special needs, it can be said that encouraging these individuals to higher education rings true via increasing state subsidies. It may be advisable for the state to provide training to entrepreneurs in all forms of disability and to support them in the areas of finance, project application and resource allocation. With guidance and state support, the potential can be increased as well as accessing to people with disabilities becomes much easier.
Keywords: Handicap, Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship, Special Need, Sport