When the dialectology studies in Idil-Ural area are examined, it is seen that there are three main groups in Kazan Tatar Turkic. These; Middle, Misher and West Sibir Tatars are dialect groups.
Speakers of the dialects of the Middle Dialect Group of Kazan Tatar Turkish, on Tatar-Bashkir Turkish Language field, they live in a very wide geography. Tatar dialects of the Middle Dialect Group are also spoken in Bashkir territory outside Tatarstan, in the area where Bashkir Turkish dialect is located in the North West Dialect. These dialects that interact with each other have similar language characteristics. For this reason, the dialects in the North West Dialect Group of Bashkir Turkish were evaluated by some dialect researchers in the Middle Dialect Group of Tatar Turkish.
The number of speakers of the Middle Dialect Group is quite high. This increases the impact area of the Middle Dialect Group. Therefore, especially in the process of forming the standard language, the dialects included in this group were more effective than the other dialect groups. Modern Kazan Tatar Writing Language was created on the basis of the Middle Dialect Group in general, Misher Dialect Group in partially. The major phonetic and morphological features of Kazan Tatar Writing Language have been established on the basis of these two dialect groups.
The Middle Dialect Group, forms the basis of Kazan Tatars Written Language. This is a common view accepted by Tatar dialectologists. In addition, the information obtained as a result of recent dialectology research, the development of Kazan Tatar Writing Language and its current form shows that Misher Dialect Group is also partially effective. Phonetic and lexical features of Kazan Tatar Writing Language were formed on the basis of the Middle Dialect Group. Misher Dialect Group was effective in forming the morphological features of Kazan Tatar Writing Language.
Kazan Ardı dialects, which is the subject of our study, is located in the Middle Dialect Group. This dialect group consists of the names Mamadış, Layış, Döbyaz and Baltaç. Kazan Ardı dialect, which is the closest to the characteristics of Kazan Tatar Turkish, is Baltaç dialect.
Tatarstan region is divided into three sections in public and scientific research. These are Kazan Ardı, Tav Yagı, Kama Aryagı. The dialects in Kazan Ardı region are spread around the Kazan and surrounding areas.
Kazan Ardı dialects have various phonetic and morphological features separated from Kazan Tatar Writing Language. For example, in some of these dialects, the following distinctive phonetic properties are seen: Significantly rounded off of the /a/ vowel in the first syllable position and next to the /b/, /p/, /ķ/ consonants (aºlma, aºpa, aºvıl, baºķça, baºlıķ, ķaºr), using /c-/ instead of /y-/ (Kaz.T.Tü.yd. yıl>cıl ‘year’, Kaz.T.Tü.yd. yuk>cuk ‘nope’), /z-/ instead of /c-/ (Kaz.T.Tü.yd. cidĩ>zidĩ‘seven’), /k-/ instead of /ħ-/ (Kaz.T.Tü.yd. ħatın >katın “woman, lady (wife), lady”) sounds in the pre-sound position in the writing language.
The morphological features of some Kazan Ardı dialects that differ from Kazan Tatar Writing Language are: The use of -sıgızd, -sĩgĩzd suffixes as a second plural person suffix in the present tense, as a interrogative particle using the -ma, -me suffixes, instead of -rak, -rek suffixes use of -(ın)tınnan, -(ĩn)tĩnnen suffixes.
These characteristics are defined as the main differences of these dialects in Kazan Tatar dialectology studies. In this study, the dictionary material about the dialects of Kazan Tatar Turkish was scanned. Based on the data obtained it is seen that the characteristics of Kazan Ardı dialects which are different from Kazan Tatar Writing Language are more than those mentioned.
When compared to Kazan Ardı dialects and the written language of Kazan Tatar Turkish, it is seen that there are a lot of deviations from the use of standard language in these dialects. As a result, when we compare the examples of Kazan Tatar Turkic language, we can summarize the characteristic sound characteristics of Kazan Ardı dialects as follows:
- Most of the sounds in Kazan Tatar Writing Language were changed when the sound characteristics of Kazan Ardı dialects were examined. Voice changes such as palatalisation, velarisation, contraction, expansion, rounding, unrounding; voicing, devoicing, in these dialects are found in every position of the word.
- In Kazan Ardı dialects, the use of labialisationed /aº/ sound is limited to the dialects of Baltaç and Mamadış. This sound is not used in the dialects of Layış and Döbyaz. The nature of the /a/ vowel is almost identical to that of the written language.
- The most change in vowels took place in /a/ sound. The change of this sound, to both front vowel /e/, /ĩ/ sounds and back vowel /ı/, /o/ sounds were observed. In Kazan Ardı dialects, especially in Döbyaz dialect, the change of /a/ sound to /a/~/e/,/ĩ/, /ı/, /o/ separates this dialect from other dialects. This sound is converted into /e/ and /ı/ vowels in Baltaç and Layış dialects. In Mamadış dialect, no example was found in which the /a/ sound changed.
- In Kazan Ardı dialects, /e/, /i/, /ĩ/ vowels can be used interchangeably in each position of the word.
- In these dialects, the change in /o/ vowel is usually in the form of a vowel contraction. In Layış dialect, in some words /u/ is used for this vowel. It has been determined that /u/ as well as /ı/ vowel is used in Mamadış and Döbyaz dialects. The most different change in /o/ occurred in dialects of Baltaç and Döbyaz. In these dialects, the loan words were transformed from /o/ vowel’s to /a/ vowel’s.
- The change in /ö/ vowel’s in Kazan Ardı dialects is met by the /ü/, which is the narrow one. In these dialects, we see that /ö/ vowel’s are being used by narrowing. This vowel is further narrowed in the dialects of Mamadış and Döbyaz. The samples in which /i/ are used are also determined. The most different change in the /ö/ vowel’s was found in the Döbyaz dialect. In the many examples we have identified from this dialect, instead of the /ö/ vowel’s, the /ĩ/ is used.
- In Kazan Ardı dialects, /ç/, /ş/, /t/, /s/ consonants are often used interchangeably. For example çişme-şişme-tişme e.t.c.
- /y/in initial phoneme and internal phoneme position in Tatar writing language, In Kazan Ardı dialects, it usually varies to /c/.
- The structure characteristics of Kazan Ardı dialects separated from Kazan Tatar writing language are as follows: -nın, -nĩn affixes is use in the genitive case of personal pronouns and after I. and II. singular person possessive affix is the use of accusative affix as -ı, – ĩ~ -nı, -nĩ .
- In these dialects, there are many changes in -gaç, -geç gerund affixes.
Keywords: North-West (Kipchak) Group Turkic Dialects, Kazan Tatar Turkish, The Middle Dialect Group, Kazan Ardı Dialects, dialectology, phonology, morphology.