Opinions of the Teacher Candidates Related to Use of Augmented Reality Technology for Educational Purposes

STRUCTURED ABSTRACT
Introduction
The rapid developments in technology impact the education process and environment. Nowadays, the diversification of the technologies which can be used in educational environments creates opportunities for educators to recognize these technologies and use them effectively. For this reason, educators need to follow the technological developments and use the most appropriate tools in their fields for education-teaching process (Akkoyunlu, 2002). One of the technologies which gains importance every day and has become prominent and in our rapidly developing world is the augmented reality technology.
Augmented reality technology was first applied in the fields of defense industry, industry and medicine (Caudell and Mizell, 1992). As augmented reality technology was effective and useful in these areas and became cheaper, it began to be used in different areas and now we can see this technology in different areas every day.
As augmented reality technology provides its users with different fields of use, it is becoming more popular and easier to use in the field of education (Erbaş and Demirer, 2014). When the studies on the use of augmented reality in education are examined, it is seen that the use of augmented reality creates an entertaining, effective and quality education environment, provides learning by doing-experiencing, provides participation in classes, increases permanent learning and motivation and it is also foreseen that the use of augmented reality will increase in education-teaching environments day by day (Kerawalla, Luckin, Seljeflot and Woolard, 2006; Uluyol and Eryilmaz, 2014; Ibili and Sahin, 2013).
There are a growing number of new studies conducted regarding the use of augmented reality in the field of education like many other new technologies. Increase in the use of augmented reality applications for educational purposes depends primarily on teachers. Teachers who are candidates for this position are believed to have important opinions. From this viewpoint, it is aimed to reveal the opinions of teacher candidates related to the use of augmented reality technology for educational purposes in this study. It is aimed to evaluate the current situation, contribute to making the necessary improvements in this filed and provide a source for the studies that will be conducted in the future through revealing the opinions of teacher candidates related to the use of augmented reality technology for educational purposes with this study.

Method
This research which aims to reveal the opinions of teacher candidates who are receiving education in pedagogical formation programme related to the use of augmented reality technology for educational purposes has been conducted taking the qualitative research method as the basis. The case study approach which is one of the qualitative research designs has shaped the study.
Since qualitative researches are not generalizable studies, the aim of this study is to demonstrate a case study regarding the use of augmented reality technology for educational purposes. It was decided to select a course which is suitable for the study because the augmented reality is provided and applied as an educational material. In this respect, Instructional Technology and Material Design course given in Siirt University, Faculty of Education, pedagogical formation education was found suitable for the research taking the period of study (2017-2018 spring semester) into consideration. While 36 teacher candidates were registered to the course in the related period, the teacher candidates who did not express their opinions at the end of the study were not included in the analysis and the study group consisted of 9 male and 11 female teacher candidates and a total of 20 teacher candidates were included in the study. Within the scope of Instructional Technology and Material Design course, the study group (N=36) were applied augmented reality activities during the five-week teaching process.
The interviews were conducted through semi-structured interview forms. At the beginning of the process, 8 items were written in the form. The literature was benefitted to develop the data collection tool. In addition, opinions of 2 experts from the Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology and 1 expert from the department of Turkish Language were obtained in order to determine the content validity of the data collection tool. As a result of the opinions obtained from the experts, some items were corrected and some items were excluded from the data collection tool. 3 items were written in accordance with the expert opinions. The pre-application of the data collection tool was carried out with 5 teacher candidates studying augmented reality applications. Interview form was prepared in a way that it does not lead the participant and questions of the interview form are easy to understand, open-ended, and unidimensional. While recording the data, names of the participants were not used within the framework of work ethics and the teacher candidates were alphanumerically coded (Ö1, Ö2, Ö3 …). Confirmations were provided in order to obtain accurate and in-depth information and receive the correct perception regarding the unclear responses.
The analysis of the qualitative data which was obtained within the scope of the study was carried out in a computer aided environment. Before starting the analyses, the semi-structured interview data was recorded in the whole article through note taking. ‘Microsoft Word’ word processing program was used with the aim of writing and editing the data. Descriptive analysis method was used to analyze the data. In the descriptive analysis, direct quotations were given to reflect the views of the teacher candidates who were interviewed and a descriptive framework was formed from the research questions for analysis. According to this framework, the categories and subcategories of the data were determined.

Findings, Discussion and Results
As a result of the study, it has been revealed that teacher candidates who are receiving pedagogical formation education think that augmented reality applications will facilitate learning and permanent learning. Similarly, it has been concluded that virtual reality environment provides learning and sustainability of learning in the study conducted by (Kaleci, Tepe and Tüzün, 2017).
According to the findings of the study, teacher candidates who participated in the study think that augmented reality applications will provide individual learning for students, help students solve problems, increase the interest for the lessons, help students focus on the lessons and increase their motivation and participation during the lessons.
According to the findings of the study, teacher candidates who participated in the study expressed the opinion that augmented reality applications facilitate associations with real life. It has been also expressed that augmented reality applications can be used in different areas such as education, health, games and entertainment. In addition, teacher candidates who participated in the study stated that the augmented reality applications could increase creativity of the students. Taşkıran et al. (2015) support the findings of this study with their study. Teacher candidates who participated in the study stated that augmented reality applications could develop cognitive, affective and psycho-motor areas of the students.
As a result, it has been found that the views regarding the application of augmented reality in the classroom environment are positive. It can be said that using augmented reality applications in educational environments will be very useful for attracting attention of the students towards the lesson, addressing cognitive, affective and psycho-motor learning areas of the students, help students learn information easily, make the learned information permanent and increase the motivation and participation during lessons as a result.
When these positive results regarding the use of augmented reality applications in education, it can be said that effective learning environment can be formed, interactive education can be provided and success can be increased with the augmented reality applications. Moreover, we can say that augmented reality applications may increase motivation of the students, attract their attention, facilitate learning, improve problem solving skills of the students and provide individual learning through increasing the interest of the students towards lessons. We can say that achieving success in these subjects will make life easier for both students and teacher candidates and augmented reality can be very beneficial for associating information with real life and using the information daily life. On the other hand, it can be said that augmented reality applications can also be used in different areas such as health, games and entertainment.
Keywords: Augmented reality, augmented reality in education, learning environments