It is a process in which people use common symbols and signs to share feelings and thoughts, including communication, transfer and meaning. Communication is done with the person, not the person, because the reaction is expected to be effected. In this context, there is a need for a common ground to meet in order for communication to take place. Communication is in a sense the flexibility of the point of view originating from the inner world of the individual. For this reason, it is very important that the message to be conveyed during interpersonal communication is given correctly, as well as being understood by the other person. For this reason, the concept of antiphlogistic empathy emerges. Empathy is defined as emotionality in the classical sense. A communication process created using empathy technique will lead to a mutual increase in the quality of information acquisition. Teachers who will train future generations will use the empathy technique efficiently and will lead them to know their students more closely and to plan lessons according to their characteristics, and as a result, to implement a more effective teaching process. In the research, it is aimed to examine the effect of the empathy technique on the speaking attitudes of the teacher candidates.
Research is weak designed experimental design. This is the only group pre-test post-test used. In the 2017-2018 academic year, the study group consists of a total of 45 teacher candidates who are studying in a public university, Faculty of Education Turkish and Social Sciences Education Department, and Turkish Language Education Department and taking the Effective Communication course. The data of the study were collected by “Speaking Skill Attitude Scale”. The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient of the scale was found as 0.812. Internal consistency coefficients of our scale; the first dimension “Interest and Love of Speaking Skills “, and .865 for the second dimension, “Anxiety and Concern Against Speaking.” In the research process, a 4-week lesson plan was developed and implemented taking into account the empathy technique. The lesson plan created with the empathy technique is organized as follows: 1.Week: Speaking skills attitude scale was applied. 2.Week: It is desirable that a student who fails the exam reflects his/her feelings and speaks with the attention of the other person’s empathy steps. 3.Week: The student is asked to describe the feelings of someone who has had trouble with the teacher and to approach him/her by talking to the person’s empathy technique. 4.Week: It is requested that the foreign student of the school reflects the problems of local cultural harmony and directs the audience to speak using the empathy technique. 5th week: A person who has lost one of their parents is asked to transfer their living, and the other person is asked to speak using empathy technique. Week 6: As a final test, the speaking skill attitude scale is applied. In the analysis of the data, statistical program was used and data-dependent groups were analyzed by t-test.
- “The difference between the pretest-posttest point averages of speaking attitude levels of the course created with empathy technique is significantly higher” is as follows.
Table 1: t-Test Results Of Pretest-Posttest Of The Level Of Speaking Skill Attitude Of The Course Created By The Empathy Technique
|Pre-test t-Test Results of the Level of Speaking Skill Level of the Lesson Created by Empathy Technique||50||
|Posttest t-Test Results of the Level of Speaking Skill Attitude Level of the Lesson Created by Empathy Technique||50||
Significant difference was found in favor of posttest. The result is that the empathy technique affects the tone of speaking skill positively.
Table 2: t-Test Results Of Speaking Skill Attitude Pre-Posttest Mean Scores According To Gender By The Empathy Technique
|Gender according to interest-love dimension||Male||16||4,5875||,303||48||,109
|Gender according to anxiety-concern dimension||Male||16||3,9732||,305||48||,390
|The attitude of speaking according to gender||Male||16||4,4282||,234||
According to gender, there was no significant difference in favor of posttest. It can be argued that the empathy technique does not change the attitude of speaking skill significantly according to the gender.
Conculusion and Discussion
As a result of the research, the lesson which was constructed with empathy technique has reached to the result that the students have a positive effect on the speaking skill. In parallel with our study, Karaca, Açıkgöz and Akkuş (2013) achieved the empathic skills development program and the result of empathic skills of first year nursing students increased significantly. Engin and Young (2015) emphasized the importance of empathy development of teachers and prospective teachers in their study to determine the empathic tendencies of class teacher candidates, emphasizing that empathy skills can be improved.
As a result of our research, it has been found that there is no significant difference in the positivity of the speaking style of the gender, which is constructed by empathy technique. Likewise our study, Çeleç and Çağdaş’s (2010) study did not affect the empathic tendencies of the teachers; they did not show any meaningful difference according to their occupational seniority, age, number of students, marital status, institutions they work with, the number of children they have, and their working styles. On the other hand, Ekinci and Aybek (2010) stated that teacher candidates differed in their empathic tendencies according to gender, program, class level, perceived socio-economic level, mother’s education level and father’s education level.
Considering the results of the research conducted, it can be said that the empathy has come to the forefront as an important factor in understanding each other better and positively influenced the speaking attitude. From here, it is suggested to increase the number of lessons developed with empathy and to give the teachers the opportunity to be involved in the lessons together.
Keywords: Empathy, Empathy Technique, Speaking, Conversation Attitude, Education.