RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIP AND ORGANIZATION CULTURE LEVELS OF PRIVATE SCHOOL TEACHERS
The humanbeing, as it is a social being from past to present, has needed to study or take part in an organization (Güney, 2007). The reason for this is that human being has spent most of his life in these organizations and has been affected by the structure of these organizations in a negative or positive way (Çevik, 2016). According to Ağlargöz (2012), human as individual takes part in the organizations intensely in various stages. The concept of organization in every moment of life can be defined as a dynamic structure which people form by coming together in the direction of common purposes and tasks and which has certain goals and uses all the available opportunities on hand in a planned way (Bakan, Büyükbeşe and Bedestenci, 2004). Kaya (2008) has also defined the organization as social structures which come together in a planned way in order to reach the goals that people has aimed. The educational organizations taking place in a social structure have been divided into two parts as private and public. All expenses of public or state schools are being tried to be covered by the government. Private schools, known as educational institutions whose expenses are not funded by the public, are established by persons or foundations that provide education from pre-school to university, except for public schools (Uygun, 2003). Daha fazla gösterThe establishment, operation and practices etc. of these schools are determined by the Ministry of National Education (MONE) by regulations (MONE, 2012). The number of private schools that play an important role in the implementation of the right to education, one of the most fundamental tasks of the state against persons, has increased in recent years. Organizational trust and organizational culture are extremely important for a healthy and productive education environment in private schools whose numbers are increasing day by day (Bil, 2018; Çevik, 2016).
The concepts of trust and culture have an important place in all organizations. Organizational trust is a concept that is intertwined with honesty and accuracy (Demircan and Ceylan 2003). Organizational culture is everything like the value and the norm that directs the attitudes of individuals within the organization (Dinçer, 1998). It is seen that organizational trust and organizational culture affect many different situations and are affected by very different situations at the same time. That the organization is able to reach the determined targets and to reveal the organizational processes of these concepts which have an important place in the social sciences has a highly importance for the organizations. The aim of this study is to determine the perception levels of private school teachers towards organizational trust and organizational culture levels and to determine whether there is a significant difference between the perceptions of teachers regarding organizational trust and organizational culture according to their personal characteristics. The following questions will be answered in the research in the direction of these basic purposes. Private school teachers working in the central districts of Bolu and Düzce;
- a) What are the perception levels of organizational trust and organizational culture?
- b) Is there a significant difference in terms of gender, education, type of school, seniority and age; perception levels of organizational trust and organizational culture?
- c) Is there a significant relationship between organizational trust and perceptions of organizational culture?
Relational scanning model was used in the study. The general purpose of this model consists of determining the degree of relationship in a minimum bivariate environment (Balcı, 2013). The universe of the research is composed of 560 teachers who work in private schools in the central districts of Bolu and Düzce in the academic year of 2017-2018. In this research, the sampling method was used because of the difficulty of reaching all of the teachers in these schools and appropriate sampling method was used. The scale was distributed to 280 teachers, and 235 of the scales were taken into consideration and the return rate of the scales was 84%. Krejcie and Morgan (1970) stated that this number of returned scale represents the universe. The data used in the study were collected with three parts questionnaires. The first part of the questionnaire contains information about the demographic characteristics of the participants. In the second part, Organizational Trust Scale developed by Yılmaz (2005) and Organizational Culture Scale developed by Terzi (2005) are included in the third part.
Variable distributions were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to determine which tests would be applied to analyze the data. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p < .05) results have showed that there wasn’t normal distribution, so nonparametric tests were used in the study. According to Kolmogorov-Smirnov test data; Mann-Whitney U test was used for gender and educational status, while Kruskal-Wallis Test was used for age, seniority and institution variables. Mean (X̅) and standard deviation (Ss) values were used to find organizational trust and organizational culture levels. For demographic characteristics, correlation analysis was performed to reveal the relationship between percentage, frequency, organizational trust and organizational culture perceptions. The significance level was taken as .05.
Conclusion and Suggestions
In this study conducted to determine the opinions of private school teachers on organizational trust and organizational culture; they have perceptions that private school teachers are fully confident in their organizations but still are inadequacy in organizational culture.
The opinions of private school teachers on organizational trust level are high in all sub-dimensions. Private school teachers generally expect justice, impartiality and openness from school administrators. For this reason, trust dimension has become more prominent compared to other dimensions. Although the opinions of the private school teachers on the level of organizational culture are generally seen at a high level in all dimensions, they have a low bureaucratic culture perception because of the rules, hierarchy and discipline.
According to the gender variable, there was no difference in the perception of private school teachers in the organizational culture, whereas there was a significant difference in the organizational trust perceptions of the teachers in terms of trust and openness to innovation. It has been found that male teachers have higher organizational trust level than female teachers in all dimensions of organizational trust.
According to the education level variable, there was no significant difference in the sense of sensitivity of private school teachers in the perception of organizational trust, a significant difference was found in the dimensions of trust, communication environment, confidence to the manager and openness to the innovation. There was a significant difference in all dimensions of organizational culture according to education level. It was concluded that meaningful difference was in favor of teachers with postgraduate education.
According to the type of the school variety, while private school teachers ‘perceptions of organizational trust do not make a meaningful difference in terms of employees’ perception, there is a significant difference in total in terms of dimensions of trust to the manager, communication environment, openness to innovation. According to variance of the type of the school, while there is a significant difference in task culture dimension in the perceptions of private school teachers in the organizational culture, there is no significant difference in other sub-dimensions and total. The differences between teachers’ perceptions of organizational trust and organizational culture have been found to be in favor of high school teachers.
According to the seniority variable, while private school teachers ‘perceptions of organizational trust do not make a meaningful difference in terms of employees’ perceptions, trust to the manager, communication environment, openness to innovation, and in total have made a significant difference. It has been observed that teachers with low seniority had lower organizational trust level than the other seniority teachers. The reason for this can be interpreted as these teachers experience more fear of losing their jobs due to their low experience. According to seniority variable, while there is no significant difference in the task culture and support culture in perceptions of private school teachers in the organizational culture in sub-dimensions and in total, there was a significant difference in bureaucratic culture and success culture in sub-dimensions.
According to the age variable, while private school teachers ‘perceptions of organizational trust do not make a significant difference in their employees’ sensitivity dimension, trust to manager communication environment, openness to innovation, and a significant difference in total were determined. Organizational trust perceptions of young teachers were found to be lower than those of other teachers. According to age variables, private school teachers perception of organizational culture; there is a significant difference in bureaucratic culture sub-dimension while there was no significant difference in terms of task culture, success culture, support culture dimensions and total. It was found that the teachers’ who were 41 and over perceptions of bureaucratic culture were lower than those of other age groups. This may be due to the high level of experience of these teachers.
It was determined that there was a high positive and significant relationship between private school teachers’ organizational trust and organizational culture perception levels. In other words, the higher the level of organizational trust is, then the higher the organizational culture level is. Recommendations based on the research results can be listed as follows:
1-Private school teachers’ job security, self-development and career-making opportunities should be evaluated and opportunities should be created to participate in social and sports activities.
2-Activities inside and outside the school should be organized for employees to know each other more closely, to communicate and share the things.
3-School administrators should act fairly in practices such as promotion, permission, reward and punishment and reinforce the organizational trust environment.
4-School administrators should give importance to decisions of teachers and other employees as far as possible and make their employees feel valuable.
5-Strict rules and bureaucratic behaviors and practices should be avoided and a suitable environment should be created for positive organizational culture by providing flexibility if it is possible.
6- Personnel working in private schools like in public schools should be directed to in-service courses.
Keywords: Private School, Organizational Trust, Organizational Culture, Teacher, Manager